Модальные глаголы в косвенной речи. Modals in Reported Speech
Понятие о модальных глаголах и косвенной речи
К модальным глаголам относятся такие глаголы, как can, must, may, should и т. д. Модальные конструкции – это have to, be supposed to.
Вы наверняка помните, что в косвенной речи времена меняются относительно тех, что были в прямой речи (e.g. Present Simple → Past Simple).
Needn't in reported speech
Модальный глагол needn’t обычно не изменяется в косвенной речи.
‘You needn’t come again’, he said.
He said that you needn’t come again.
Однако также допустимо использовать формы didn’t need/didn’t have to/wouldn’t have to в косвенной речи.
‘You needn’t go tonight’, he said.
He said that I didn’t need to go last night.
He said that I didn’t have to go last night.
‘You needn’t worry about the next meeting’, she said.
She said that I wouldn’t have to worry about the next meeting.
Изменения модальных глаголов в косвенной речи
Рассмотрим, какие изменения будут происходить с модальными глаголами в косвенной речи:
1. Глаголы might, should, ought to, would, could, had better не изменяются.
He said, ‘Guests might come’. (direct speech)
He said that guests might come. (reported speech)
She said, ‘I should help him’.
She said that she should help him.
He said to me, ‘You ought to wait for him’.
He said to me that I ought to wait for him.
He said, ‘I would start a business’.
He said that he would start a business.
Kate said, ‘I could be wrong’.
Kate said that she could be wrong.
I said Jim, ‘You had better hurry up’.
I told Jim that he had better hurry up.
2. Модальные глаголы, за которыми следует продолженный или перфектный инфинитив, также не изменяются в косвенной речи.
‘Jack must have saved a lot of money’, I said.
I said that Jack must have saved a lot of money.
Ellie said, ‘I might have been staying in the sun for too long’.
Ellie said that she might have been staying in the sun for too long’
3. Can → could
He said, ‘I can drive a car’.
He said that he could drive a car.
4. Shall → should/could
Tanya said, ‘What shall we give her as a gift?’
Tanya wondered what they should/could give her as a gift.
5. May → could (permission)/might (possibility)
‘You may not go to the party because there may be drinking there’, my mother said.
My mother told me that I couldn’t go to the party because there might be drinking there.
6. Must → had to
Nick said, ‘I must work hard’.
Nick said that he had to work hard.
Если must выражает предположение или логический вывод, то он не изменяется в косвенной речи.
Neil said, ‘I keep forgetting things. I must be getting old’.
Neil said that he must be getting old.
Если в прямой речи используется форма mustn’t, то в косвенной речи она меняться не будет.
Chris said, ‘You mustn’t tell my brother’.
Chris told me that I mustn’t tell his brother.
7. Will → would
I said, ‘I will probably be late’.
I said that I would probably be late.
8. Некоторые модальные глаголы могут переходить в модальные выражения:
Can’t → wouldn’t be able to
I said, ‘Sorry, I can’t solve this problem’.
I said that I wouldn’t be able to solve that problem.
Must → was/were to (to express obligation)
The teacher said to us, ‘You must come on time’.
The teacher told us that we were to come on time.
9. Модальные выражения обычно переходят в свои прошедшие формы:
Have/has to → had to
‘I have to buy new shoes’, I told my brother.
I told my brother that I had to buy new shoes.
Be supposed to → was/were supposed to
‘Sam isn’t supposed to know about the party’, I said.
I said that Sam wasn’t supposed to know about the party.
Выполните задания, чтобы проверить, насколько хорошо вы усвоили новую тему.
‘Can we watch the TV news?’
She asked if we ________ watch the TV news.
‘I might be a bit late’.
He said he ______ be a bit late.
‘You must do it now.’
He told me I _______ it then.
‘Will you be coming back?’
She asked me if I _______ be coming back.
‘You should eat more vegetables’.
She said I ______ eat more vegetables.
‘You must have been mistaken’.
He said that I ______ mistaken.
‘Shall I print those reports now?’
She asked me if she ______ print the reports.
‘It may rain later’.
She said it ______ rain later.
‘Would you like a biscuit?’
He asked me if I ______ like a biscuit.
‘You needn’t do it now’.
He said that I _______ do it then.
Проверь себя: 1. could, 2. might, 3. had to do, 4. would, 5. should, 6. must have been, 7. should, 8. might, 9. would, 10. needn’t/didn’t have to
Задания повышенной сложности
Rewrite the sentences to make reported speech:
‘I’ll go to the movies tomorrow’, John said
‘You must wear your seatbelt’, mom said to me.
Jane said, ‘I may not be in class tomorrow.’
‘Claire should rest’, said the doctor.
‘You must be tired after such a trip’, Jonas said to us.
George said, ‘I would try it.’
‘You’re not supposed to be here’, the police officer said to Tony.
Linda said, ‘He ought to stay in bed’.
Mother said, ‘He might have been lost’.
‘You’d better stay away from this house’, Mark warned Rita.
Check your answers:
John said he would go to the movies the next day.
My mom said I had to wear my seatbelt.
Jane said she might not be in class the next day.
The doctor said that Claire should rest
Jonas said that we must be tired after such a trip.
George said that he would try it.
The police officer told Tony that he wasn’t supposed to be there.
Linda said that he ought to stay in bed.
Mother said that he might have been lost.
Вопросы к конспектам
Turn the following sentences into reported speech:
1. ‘I can’t afford to buy this dress’, said Sally. 2. ‘I may be a little late this evening’, he said. 3. ‘You’d better clean up this mess’, Mum said to Claire. 4. ‘I won’t be late again’, he said to us. 5. ‘We must go home now’, mother said. 6. ‘You ought to make a decision soon’, Andrew told her. 7. ‘You needn’t pay in cash’, he said. 8. ‘I might talk to her’, Danny said. 9. ‘You must be interested in this topic’, Mark said. 10. ‘You mustn’t sit on the grass’, the rules said.