Reported speech. Sequence of tenses
Введение понятий прямой речи и косвенной
Кэт говорит своему другу Бену:
“I will have a birthday party tomorrow.” Это пример прямой речи. Это именно то, что говорит человек. Прямая речь заключается в кавычки.
Обратите внимание на отличие кавычек в русском языке «А» от кавычек в английском “A” или британский вариант ‘А’.
Позже Бен рассказывает о дне рождении Кэт своему другу Майку.
“Kate said she would have a birthday party the next day.” – Это пример косвенной речи. Бен пересказывает слова Кэт.
Правило согласования времен
Сравните эти два предложения:
Каtе said: “I will have a birthday party tomorrow!” – Kate said she would have a birthday party the next day.
В предложении произошли определенные изменения при переводе из прямой речи в косвенную. А именно:
Pronouns (местоимения) – I изменилось на she.
Time expressions (наречия времени) – tomorrow изменилось на the next day.
Verb tense (время глагола) – have стало would have.
Эти изменения произошли в соответствии с правилом согласования времен (Sequence of Tenses Rule).
Прочитайте еще несколько примеров, которые помогут вам понять это правило, обращая внимание на изменения в предложениях.
Max said, “I am ready.”– Max said (that) he was ready.
Mary said, “We went to school yesterday”. – Mary said (that) they had gone to school the previous day.
“You are wearing a nice suit,” said the girl. – The girl said (that) he was wearing a nice suit.
Jenny said, “I have broken his cup”. – Jenny said (that) she had broken his cup.
При переводе предложения из прямой речи в косвенную, когда вы пересказываете кому-то чьи-то слова и действие, о котором вы говорите, произошло какое-то время назад, НЕОБХОДИМО ПОМЕНЯТЬ глагольную форму на шаг НАЗАД (в прошлое). Правило – backshift
• Present Simple to Past Simple.
"I come here every week." – She said (that) she came here every week.
• Present Continuous to Past Continuous.
"I'm reading a book." – He said (that) he was reading a book.
• Past Simple to Past Perfect
"I bought some new chairs." – She said (that) she had bought some new chairs.
• Present Perfect to Past Perfect
"I've seen that film twice." – She said (that) he had seen that film twice.
• Will becomes would.
"I'll come early." – He said (that) he would come early.
• Can becomes could.
"I can run fast." – She said (that) she could run fast.
Союз THAT не обязательно использовать в предложении, вы можете его опустить.
При переводе предложения из прямой речи в косвенную, необходимо помнить и том, что МЕСТОИМЕНИЯ должны использоваться логично и, возможно, их тоже надо поменять.
He said, “I am busy.” – He said that he was busy.
She said, “I am unwell.” – She said that she was unwell.
They said, “We will go to the cinema.” – They said they would go to the cinema.
She said, “My house is big.” – She said that her house was big.
Перепишите предложения в косвенной речи.
Tom said, “I want to visit my friends.”
Jerry said, “I'm studying English a lot.”
They said, “We have lived in England for a long time.”
He said, “I want to go there.”
Susan said, “I can come to the party.”
They said, “We will do it.”
Marry said, “I like ice cream.”
Tom said (that) he wanted to visit his friends.
Jerry said (that) he was studying English a lot.
They said (that) they had lived in England for a long time.
He said (that) he wanted to go there.
Susan said (that) she could come to the party.
They said (that) they would do it.
Marry said (that) she liked ice cream.
Изменение наречий времени и указательных местоимений
При переводе из прямой речи в косвенную обращайте внимание на наречия времени и указательные местоимения this/these:
Каte said: “I will have a birthday party tomorrow!” – Kate said she would have a birthday party the next day.
Изменения происходят так:
today– (on) thatday
She said, “I have been late for classes today.” – She said (that) she had been late for classes that day.
this morning/afternoon/tonight – that morning/afternoon/that night
He said, “I want to leave for London tonight.”
He said (that) he wanted to leave for Delhi that night.
Now – then
Peter said, “I am very busy now.” – Peter said (that) he was very busy then.
Tomorrow – the following day/the next day
She said, “I will leave for New York tomorrow.”– She said (that) she would leave for New York the next day.
next week/month – the following week/ month
He said, “I will be on holidays next week.” – He said he would be on holidays the following week.
In a few days – a few days later
They said: “We will see her in a few days.” – They said (that) they would see her a few days later.
Yesterday – the day before
He said, “I visited them yesterday.”
He said (that) he had visited them the day before.
last week/month/year – the week/ month/year before
He said: "I visited New York last year." – He said (that) he had visited New York the year before.
5 minutes/three days/a week ago –5 minutes/ three days / a week before
She said, "John called 10 minutes ago."
She said (that) John had called 10 minutes before.
Here – there
He said, “I am glad to be here this evening.” – He said (that) he was glad to be there that evening.
This – that
She said, “I liked this bag.” – She said that she liked that bag.
These – those
She said, “These flowers are beautiful.” – She said (that) those flowers were beautiful.
Если что-то сказано и эти слова пересказывают СРАЗУ, наречия времени можно не менять.
(He has said it today) "I will go on holiday tomorrow," he said.
(I report about it today) He said he would go on holiday tomorrow.
(She said it this week) "We painted the hall last weekend," she said.
(I report it this week.) She said they had painted the hall last weekend.
Исправьте ошибки в предложениях с косвенной речью.
She said, “I have forgotten your name.” – She said that she has forgotten my name.
Jane said, “I will wait here.” – Jane said that she would wait here.
He said, “I can swim.” – He said that he can swam.
He said, “We were playing football yesterday.” – He said they were playing football a day ago.
Kate said, “I will buy a book tomorrow.”– He said that he would buy a book the day before.
Sam said, “She arrived last week.” – Sam said she had arrived a week ago.
He said, “I like this book.” – He said that he liked this book.
The teacher said, “We are doing exercises now.” – The teacher said that they were doing the next day.
She said that she had forgotten my name.
Jane said that she would wait there.
He said that he could swim.
He said they were playing football the day before.
Kate said that he would buy a book the next day.
Sam said she had arrived the week before.
He said that he liked that book.
The teacher said that they were doing exercises then.
Форму глагола можно не изменять в следующих случаях:
1. Если глагол в главном предложении в настоящем времени. If the reporting verb is in the present tense.
Bill says, "I am enjoying my holiday." – Bill says he is enjoying his holiday.
Sandy says, "I will never meet him again." – Sandy says she will never meet him again.
2. Если мы пересказываем событие, которое до сих пор происходит. When we report something that is still true.
Steve says, "Asia is the largest continent." – Dan said Asia is the largest continent.
Anna says, "Moscow is the capital of Russia." – Emma said Moscow is the capital of Russia.
Pedro said, “I am from Brazil and I have three children.” – Pedro said he is from Brazil and he has three children.
3. Если предложение высказано и пересказано в одно и то же время и событие, которое пересказывают, все еще актуально. When a sentence is made and reported at the same time and the fact is still true.
Tina said: "I am hungry." –Tina said she is hungry.
Итак, когда вы переводите предложения из прямой речи в косвенную, обращайте внимание на три изменения:
place and time expressions and demonstrative pronouns
tenses to one step back